PLAY THE BLAME GAME: Researchers looked at how we judge people’s ethics after the outcome of their actions are known. In a working paper published by Harvard Busi- ness School, they find “that individuals judge behaviors as less ethical, more blameworthy, and punish them more harshly, when such behaviors led to undesirable consequences, even if they saw those behaviors as acceptable before they knew its consequences.” Not only can we find you guilty based on outcome bias, but we can determine that you were a lousy, unethical human being all along.
2. The three gamblers are Dean Martin, Sammy Davis Jr., and Frank Sinatra. Frank Sinatra goes on to be nominated over thirty times for a Grammy and wins thirteen. Sammy wins four, and Dean just one for lifetime achievement. Who was the best singer?
3. Frank, Sammy, and Dean jump in their cars for a race down the strip. They arrive at the Sands in the following order: Dean, Sammy, Frank. Who was the fastest driver?